Interventional cardiology diagnoses heart diseases and focuses on catheter-based treatments. Some potential treatments of interventional cardiology include:
- Impella support
- Cardiac catheterization
- Coronary thrombectomy
- Pacemaker/Defibrillator implantation
Over time, plaque can build up in the heart’s arteries and can potentially cause symptoms, such as blocked blood flow, stroke or heart attack. Angioplasty is a catheter-based procedure that opens the blocked arteries to restore normal blood flow to the patient’s heart.
Angioplasty is performed when a catheter is inserted through the arterial system to the plaque-blocked artery. Typically, the patient does not feel any pain, as the arteries do not have any nerves. Once the catheter is positioned and the blockage is found, a tiny balloon is positioned and then inflated. When the balloon is inflated, it flattens the plaque, and when complete, the catheter is removed.
Atherectomy is catheter-based procedure used to remove plaque buildup in the arteries. This procedure is very similar to angioplasty, but it varies in that it uses additional tools to remove the plaque from the walls. Hattiesburg Clinic Heart & Vascular utilizes both orbital and laser atherectomy.
The Impella heart pump is an FDA-approved, temporary ventricular support device designed to provide hemodynamic support to a patient with depressed heart function. The device is approved for use in “high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)” and in instances where a patient is suffering from cardiogenic shock following a heart attack or an open-heart surgery.
INTRA-AORTIC BALLOON PUMP
An intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) helps the heart pump more blood when the patient’s heart is unable to pump enough to meet the needs of the body. A balloon attached to the end of a catheter is inserted into the aorta, which is the large artery leaving the heart. The balloon will inflate with helium when the heart relaxes. IABP is not a long-term treatment option.
To determine if a patient has disease in the heart, valves or arteries, a catheterization test may be implemented. This test is intended to see how a patient’s heart functions or if there are any issues. A catheter is inserted into a large blood vessel and positioned properly. Dye is then inserted to give a better visual on X-rays. The doctor is then able to better diagnose issues with the patient’s heart. This procedure is minimally invasive and patients rarely feel pain.
Cardioversion is a procedure intended to restore a normal rhythm as a result of arrhythmia, or abnormal heartbeat. A heartbeat that goes too fast or unevenly can be hazardous to the health of the patient. Potential consequences of arrhythmia include stroke or death.
Electrical cardioversion is a procedure where paddles are placed on the chest, and while sedated, you’re given a mild electrical shock to help the heart return to a normal rhythm. Cardioversion does not always completely resolve arrhythmia, and medication or a pacemaker may also be suggested to manage the heart’s rhythm.
Thrombectomy is a catheter-based procedure intended to remove a blood clot. Similar to other interventional cardiology procedures, a catheter is inserted through the arteries to the location of the clot. If the clot is large, it is broken up and smaller pieces are removed. If the clot is smaller, the clot will be aspirated into a tube.
Your doctor may recommend the implantation of a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) if you have serious arrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat.
A pacemaker uses electoral pulses to control abnormal heartbeats, telling the heart to slow down or speed up. A defibrillator monitors the heartbeat and only if it senses an irregularity does it deliver a shock to normalize rhythm. The procedure to have a pacemaker or defibrillator implanted is a minor procedure and most patients are able to return to normal activities within a week.
A stent is a small tube to treat arteries that may have become narrow over time due to the buildup of plaque. Stents often open narrow arteries, help avoid a heart attack and reduce heart disease-related symptoms such as chest pain. Stenting is a mildly invasive procedure compared to other procedures, such as bypass surgery.
During the procedure, a balloon-tipped catheter is inserted into the artery and delivered to the blockage or narrow artery. Once there, a wire mesh tub is inserted to hold the artery open and encourage blood flow. The stent stays in the artery permanently.
Hattiesburg Clinic Heart & Vascular service area encompasses an 11 county region with 11 locations across the Pine Belt.